All this suggests to me that it is not a slam
dunk, as we say in the States, that whatever the U.S. bishops adopt will
be automatically approved here in Rome. Dallas, in other words, is not
the end of the story.
|This week all
eyes are on Dallas, where the U.S. bishops will try to round a corner on
the sexual abuse crisis that broke anew in Boston in December. It’s not
just the U.S. that will be watching. Here in Rome curial officials are
also paying close attention, knowing that whatever the American bishops
do will be widely influential around the world.
I happened to share a
plane ride last Saturday with Belgian Cardinal Jan Schotte, a very influential
figure in this pontificate who runs the Synod of Bishops. I had been in
Chicago giving a talk at the Religion Booksellers Trade Exhibit about my
new book Conclave (more on that below). Schotte was returning to
Rome from New Guinea and Australia, where he had been a houseguest of Archbishop
George Pell of Sydney.
I didn’t have a chance
to chat much with Schotte in the air, since he was in business class while
my wife and I were squirming back in coach. But as we waited for our bags
at Fumicino Airport, Schotte was happy to kill a few minutes reflecting
on the American situation. He told me he saw a divided conference, with
some of the U.S. bishops focusing entirely on process, while others seem
more interested in probing what really caused the crisis.
Schotte’s main fear was
that under the weight of intense media criticism, the threat of lawsuits,
and enormous public pressure, the bishops may adopt ad-hoc solutions, thereby
“forgetting general principles.” Those principles, Schotte said, were laid
out by Fr. Gianfranco Ghirlanda, one of Rome’s foremost canon lawyers,
in a celebrated Civilità Cattolica article of May 18. Ghirlanda
called for a balance between protecting victims from abuse, but also ensuring
the due process rights of accused priests, and not abandoning priests even
if found to be guilty. (Most controversially, Ghirlanda denied that bishops
were either “morally or juridically responsible for the criminal acts committed
by one of their clergy,” unless they had reached a moral certainty that
a priest was guilty of an offense and had failed to intervene).
Schotte also expressed
reservations about calls for quasi-automatic cooperation with the police
and the courts. He noted that in Belgium the bishops had successfully resisted
demands to turn over their records about priests accused of misconduct,
on the grounds that these are confidential church documents.
Schotte’s caution tracks
with the far more explosive comments of Cardinal Oscar Rodriguez Maradiaga
of Honduras, who recently objected to media “persecution” of the Catholic
church in the United States, comparing it to the times of Nero and Diocletian,
and more recently, Stalin and Hitler. (Rodriguez also complained that a
judge handling a case involving Cardinal Bernard Law of Boston is a feminist).
All this suggests to
me that it is not a slam dunk, as we say in the States, that whatever the
U.S. bishops adopt will be automatically approved here in Rome. Dallas,
in other words, is not the end of the story.
* * *
To the surprise of some
of my American colleagues, there are still a few other religion stories
in the world, and a big one is set to happen this Sunday in Rome. It looks
to be one of the largest religious celebrations the city has ever seen,
which, given the history of Rome, is saying something. The event is the
canonization of Blessed Padre Pio of Pietralcina, the Capuchin stigmatic,
miracle worker and visionary.
Authorities say they
anticipate 400,000 people, almost all Italian, to fill St. Peter’s Square,
flowing down the Mussolini-constructed Via della Conciliazione towards
the Castel Sant’Angelo. Roman police say they have a contingency plan in
place to handle an overflow of up to 600,000.
The pilgrims will begin
arriving at 4 a.m. Sunday, and my wife and I will be able to see them lumber
into town from our balcony, since our apartment on the Via Gregorio VII
overlooks the main parking lot for tourist buses near the Vatican. (Some
3,800 tour buses are anticipated). The canonization Mass itself starts
at 10 a.m.
Another crowd of some
150,000 is expected at San Giovanni Rotondo, the small southern Italian
town where Padre Pio spent most of his life. They’ll watch the ceremony
on a giant TV screen, and when the key moment comes, helicopters will drop
rose petals, white balloons and holy cards over the devotees. The evening
will be rounded out with a Marine band and fireworks.
The Italian fascination
with Padre Pio is never ending. Just this week, the medical consultant
for Padre Pio’s cause of canonization, Gerardo Violi, announced the formation
of a commission of doctors, lawyers, theologians and psychiatrists to study
Padre Pio’s reported stigmata, or the reproduction on his body of the five
wounds of Christ. (The wounds are said to have stayed fresh for decades,
then closed suddenly upon his death). The commission’s aim will be to persuade
the Vatican to officially recognize Padre Pio as a stigmatic.
If it happened, he would
be only the fourth case given official sanction by the Vatican, the other
three being well known: St. Francis, St. Catherine, and St. Clare. Padre
Pio would thus be the first priest acknowledged to have received the stigmata.
From a certain point
of view, the recognition hardly seems necessary. After all, Paul VI once
called Padre Pio a “faithful representation of the stigmata of Our Lord,”
words that appear on the Capuchin’s tomb. Moreover, on March 3, 2000, the
day after Padre Pio was beatified, the pope and Secretary of State Cardinal
Angelo Sodano referred to him as the “stigmatized friar.”
Beyond these official
signals of approval, virtually every Italian I know, from the most credulous
to the most anti-clerical, already regards Padre Pio’s stigmata as completely,
inarguably legitimate. If ever there was a case of the sensus fidelium
having already settled a question, this is it.
So what’s the point of
seeking an official decree?
It seems that in the
saint business these days, for the truly zealous it’s no longer enough
just to have your candidate beatified and then canonized, even if it happens
in record time. In a papacy that has already beatified 1,282 people and
canonized 456, this “halo inflation” has drained some of the luster from
merely entering the roster of the blessed. Now something extra, a further
sign of favor, is needed to signal that a particular figure is truly in
the upper echelons of holiness. As always, saints with powerful lobbies
behind them are more likely to get it.
In Padre Pio’s case,
that “something more” could be official recognition of his wounds. To take
another example, rumor has it that backers of Opus Dei founder Josemaría
Escrivá, to be canonized in Rome Oct. 6, are thinking of asking
John Paul II to declare him a “doctor of the church.” It’s an honor bestowed
on saints whose contributions have shaped the thinking of the church in
some significant way, such as Augustine, Francis de Sales, and Robert Bellarmine.
The last one to be added to the list was St. Thérèse of Lisieux
Some who have read Escrivá’s
works, especially his famous 1935 collection of maxims called The Way,
wonder if its author achieved the kind of profundity such a lofty title
implies. (Take as an illustrative example saying # 182: “Let us drink to
the last drop the chalice of pain in this poor present life. What does
it matter to suffer for ten years, twenty, fifty... if afterwards there
is heaven forever, forever... forever?”)
Nevertheless, don’t bet
against Escrivá one day joining Thérèse, given the
competence and dedication of his stalwarts.
By the way, June 16 should
be a special occasion not just in San Giovanni Rotondo, but also for at
least three sites in the United States associated, however tangentially,
with the memory of Padre Pio. Milwaukee, for example, has a link. Capuchin
Fr. Dominic Meyer, who served for many years as Padre Pio’s English secretary,
was the cousin of Cardinal Albert Meyer, a Milwaukee native who went on
to be archbishop of Milwaukee and later Chicago. Both Mahoningtown, Pennsylvania,
and Jamaica, New York, also have ties to Padre Pio, since both are places
to which the saint’s father, Grazio Forgione, immigrated for brief periods
over the 1890s and 1900s in order to make money for the family. In Mahoningtown
he worked on a farm, while in Jamaica he was employed in construction.
According to the small
biography distributed to us in the Vatican press office, Grazio sent back
the whopping sum of $9 a week to help pay Francesco’s tuition — which means
that indirectly, American agriculture and building trades helped give Padre
Pio his start. There’s something to remember this Sunday.
A final footnote: Amid
the drama surrounding the Dallas meeting of the U.S. bishops and the sexual
abuse crisis in the American church, it may be worth noting that in canonizing
Padre Pio, John Paul II is elevating to the sainthood a priest who was
once accused of sexual misconduct. On July 29, 1960, an Italian monsignore,
Carlo Maccari, later to become the archbishop of Ancona, began an investigation
of Padre Pio on behalf of Pope John XXIII and the then Holy Office. The
200-page report he compiled, though never published, is said to be devastatingly
critical. The most spectacular charge was that Padre Pio was involved sexually
with female devotees. According to accounts in the Italian press, Maccari
recorded a rumor that Padre Pio had sex with female penitents twice a week.
(The Latin is preserved: bis in hebdomada copulabat cum muliere).
Obviously history, or
at least the version that counts at the Congregation for the Causes of
Saints, has cleared Padre Pio. Perhaps it’s a timely reminder that even
the most scurrilous accusations sometimes get attached to holy people.
* * *
I hope I may be forgiven
a shameless commercial plug. My new book Conclave: The Politics, Personalities
and Process of the Next Papal Election goes on sale this week. Published
by Doubleday, I hope it’s a useful guide to the issues and the candidates
heading into the next papal election. It’s intended as an “everything under
one roof” handbook, with five chapters:
The book is a work of journalism,
so I don’t take sides, settle the arguments, or push a particular candidate.
I try to offer readers the information they will need to form their own
What the pope does and why it matters who holds the
Five voting issues facing the next conclave
A day-by-day overview of the process of electing
Political parties in today’s College of Cardinals
Critical biographical sketches of all the candidates
The next time you’re
in a bookstore, I hope you’ll give it a look. If you like, you can go to
Amazon.com and order the book on-line:
There’s also a free excerpt
from chapter one on the site, so you can give it a “test drive” before
making the purchase.
The e-mail address for John L. Allen Jr. is
The National Catholic Reporter Publishing
115 E. Armour Blvd.
Kansas City, MO 64111